Dominance (top wolf) and passive submission (lower wolf). Submission is always voluntary.
Both wolves exhibit tongue flicks and avoidance behaviours such as turning eye, head, pawing, and curving (right).
A few avoidance signals from Ruby (right). She avoids eye contact so conflict doesn't arise.
Active submission (left) is presented in order to avoid conflict from the other wolf (right).
Nose nudging and head rubbing solidifies bonds and establishes comfort.
Nose nudging solidifies bonds and transcends social ranks.
Waiting for another member is common in wolves because they enjoy parallel walking.
Very small agonistic pucker (left) and avoidance signals of pawing and curving (right).
Akiak (left) stands her ground and accepts Ruby's (right) signals of turning eye, turning head, pawing, and curving signals.
Conflict avoided and Ruby (right) can seek comfort from Akiak (left).
Conflict resolved, social bonds are maintained, all is right in the world. Ruby (right) is secure.
A very ritualised dominance and active submission conflict resolution pose.